Science and technology policy fellowships train scientists and engineers to use their expertise to advise government officials in technical matters to inform policymaking. There are many such fellowships at the federal level. State-level fellowships are beginning to emerge as opportunities for scientists and engineers to contribute more locally. However, differences in legislative structures between states (e.g. legislative size, session duration, state resources) require state-specific fellowship design. We describe two case studies of emerging fellowships in North Carolina and Virginia and use these examples as a model to suggest how three other states—Ohio, Texas, and Tennessee—might implement similar policy fellowships. We highlight the government structures in each of these states, focusing on how each unique type of legislature informs the most promising options for host locations, funding sources, and duties for fellows in each state. For coalitions to establish successful state science policy fellowships, we recommend understanding the particular structure and needs of state governments, communicating with key stakeholders, and identifying additional opportunities for fellows to engage outside of the state government.